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You can assign an alternate name for a field that displays in the Data window as well as in the view. For instance, a field called Customer Segment in the data source could be aliased to appear as Business Segment in Tableau. You can rename both dimensions and measures. Renaming a field does not change the name of the field in the underlying data source, rather it is given a special name that only appears Tableau workbooks. The changed field name is saved with the workbook as well as when you export the connection.
The field displays with the new name in the Data window.